The building was constructed in 1836 by the Bavarian engineer Von Weiler. For a long period it was used as a military hospital and later, as the Gendarmes' Barracks. In 1978 it was offered to the Ministry of Culture and in 1985-87 was repaired in order to serve all its present functions.

The museum organizes educational programmes for students of primary and secondary schools, but also houses congresses and other activities in the lecture hall, as well as temporary exhibitions. Workshops and storerooms for the casts are installed on the basement of the building.

The collections of the museum include:

Collection of casts of the Pathenon sculptures (ground floor)

Exhibits concerning the Erechtheion (ground floor)

The exhibition "Acropolis Conservation, Restoration and Research" (first floor)

Exhibition of clay-tiled roofs of the Acropolis monuments (first floor).