The village of Aiani is located 22Km in south-east of Kozani, near the Aliakmona river in the foot of the Bourinos mountain. The ancient Aiani is identified with the settlement in the hill of ''Megali Rachi''. From the prehistoric to the post byzantine period, the city flourished. During the roman and the early-byzantine period, Aiani is no longer in power because of the barbaric invasions. As a result, another village named Kaisaria near Aiani was developed and a bishopric was founded. Many castles were demolished during the byzantine period in the area of Western Macedonia. Those of Aiani were among them. In a codex of Zaborda's monastery, Aiani is mentioned as Kalliani.
During the post byzantine period, especially in 16th c. many churches were built and decorated with important wall paintings. During the Turkish conquest Aiani maintained the independence of its properties, enjoyed particular privileges and was an administrative center in the area.