Apart from the coastal sanctuary of Artemis Proseioas, which is closely connected with the naval battle of 480 BC, a number of settlements, most of them still largely unexplored by archaeologists, developed around Cape Artemision. Neolithic, Helladic and Geometric pottery sherds from the low hill of Divouni on the northeast side of the plain of Istiaia demonstrate that the hill was inhabited from the Neolithic until the Geometric period (seventh century BC). Remains of walls were also identified on Palaiokastro hill, near Cape Artemision and at the village of Kastri Gouvon. Pottery finds date these from the Early Helladic period (2800-2000 BC) until the Roman era. Another ancient settlement probably existed on the hill at Palaiokastro Vasilikon, the remains of which have been largely looted for building material.

The most important town of Cape Artemision is believed to have developed at Vasilika, on the northeast tip of Euboea. Parts of a fortification wall and the remains of walls and other constructions survive on the small peninsula of Cheronisi, also known as Chersonisi (barren island) or Choironisi (island of the pigs), which forms a safe haven for ships, hence the development of the settlement. Their masonry dates these buildings to the Classical-Hellenistic periods, but pottery finds indicate that the area was inhabited from prehistoric times until the Roman period. Approximately one kilometre south of Cheronisi is Kastradaki hill, whose top is occupied by yet another unexplored Euboean archaeological site. This fortified site has imposing walls of limestone, up to three metres high at places, dated after brief examination to the sixth century BC. Fragments of pointed-toe amphorae scattered between the hill and the shore indicate the possible existence of a pottery workshop in this area. Comparison with similar amphorae demonstrated their close resemblance with those produced in the workshops of Skopelos and Alonnisos in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Finally, the remains of a farmhouse dating from the Classical to the Roman period were identified on a hill at Perivolakia, west of Cheronisi.