The Archeological Museum of Naxos houses works of art and objects of every day use dating from the Late Neolithic period to Early Christian times (5300 BC - 5th c. AD). These finds came to light in the excavations which have been continuing on the island since the Second World War.

Naxos is the largest and most important of the Cyclades, a rich island with a natural environment suitable for the development of farming and stock-raising. It is also an island with good natural harbors, a circumstance which has contributed much to its strong continuous cultural presence in Greece from the end of the 4th millennium BC to the present day.

Naxos first flourished during Early Cycladic II period (about 2700 - 2300 BC), during which, along with the small nearby islets, it evolved into one of the most important commercial and cultural centres of the period. During the later phases of the Bronze Age, there were a variety of changes and upheavals in the Aegean which resulted in new centres rising to prominence on other islands (Thera, Milos, Paros) and Naxos lost its leading position in the Aegean.

Excavations over the last forty years have brought a large number of archaeological sites (Grotta, Aplomata, Pithos in Chora, Melanes, Sangri, Iria, Tsikalario in central Naxos, Panormos, Korphi t'Aroniou in east Naxos), and also the many finds that are now housed in the Naxos Museum.

The archaeological collections of the Naxos Museum include some important finds, especially from the Early Cycladic periods (3200 to 2300 BC), though also from the earlier historical phases; many of these finds are unique.

The collections of Early Cycladic marble figurines is second to only to that of the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, and there are also some very fine collections of vases dating from the Mycenaean (late 2nd millennium BC) and Geometric periods (9th - 8th c. BC).

The Archaic (7th - 6th c. BC), Classical (5th - 4th c. BC) and Hellenistic (3rd - 1st c. BC) periods are represented by characteristic examples of pottery and terracotta figurines. The Roman period (1st c. BC to 2nd c. AD) has yielded not only pottery but also a large, highly interesting collection of glass vases. Archaic sculpture is represented by a few important works.