The building was constructed in 1911 in order to shelter the Kytheraic Union and it was donated to the Greek Ministry of Culture in 1975. In 1981 it was renovated in order to house the finds of the excavations and in 1991, a room (xenon) was added.

The museum contains the Minoan finds from the excavations of Palaeopolis.

The most important items of the museum are:

Archaic lion from Kythera.

Various prehistoric finds. Pottery and stone artefacts dated to the Minoan period, found in Palaeopolis.

Minoan pottery. Vases found in the excavations of Palaeopolis.

Head of a statue. Iconistic head of a beardless man, dated to the Roman period.

Marble head of a youth, dated to the Roman period. It is a copy of an original statue of the 4th century B.C.
Christoforos Vallianos