The Skyros Museum was built in 1963 and inaugurated ten years later, to house the archaeological finds that attest to the long history of the island.

Skyros was inhabited from the Neolithic period (5.500-2.800 BC), as is attested by the remains found in various parts of the island. It flourished during the early Bronze Age (2.800-1.900 B.C) and reached the height of its prosperity during the Mycenaean period (1.650-1.100 B.C). Skyros was also an important island during the Geometric and Archaic periods. In 475 BC it was conquered by the Romans. In the 2nd c. AF, Christianity spread to the island.