© Ministry of Culture and Sports
Air-view of the citadel
The settlement of Doliani develops on a hill, which engulfs the Kalamas river from the west and partly the south. The position is naturally protected given that the west and south slopes are rocky, very steep and not accessible. To protect the most accessible north and east side double fortification walls were constructed, contemporary with the foundation of the city in the second half of the 4th century B.C. The accessible southwestern part of the citadel were also reinforced with a wall. The fortification consists of two successive enclosures. The inner fortification wall underwent many repairs and thus kept in a very good condition. A second wall enclosed the rest of the settlement that lies on the gentle slopes of the hill.

The double fortification wall was reinforced by the existence of towers and frontal retrenchments. Both the inner and outer enclosure are constructed in pseudo-isodomic masonry and their width varies between 3.50 and 4.50 m The construction was made using local limestone. The stone blocks are positioned so as to form two fronts, the gap between them being filled with smaller rubble. The fortification had a monumental arched gate on the external wall and at least four more gates in the interior wall, with the possibility of existence and a fifth one.

Due to the continuous habitation inside the citadel, later embankments have completely covered the oldest buildings, of which only two have been investigated: a large rectangular building, probably a Hellenistic house, located in the northeastern part of the citadel, near the fortification, and its successive building to the north, which dates in the same period but bears later alterations and additions. At the highest point of the citadel in the northwest dominates a square tower, which by its masonry can be dated to the late Byzantine period. A partially preserved building with arched openings built on the south tower of the inner fortification dates probably in the Post Byzantine period.

All over the citadel the remains of later era buildings are visible today, mostly houses of agricultural character. The buildings are connected by precincts of dry stone masonry and communicate through paths, while in the center of the village there was a stone-built threshing floor.
Vasiliki Lamprou, archaeologist